Efectos de los inhibidores de la DPP-4 sobre función renal
O`Hara DV, Parkhill TR, Badve SV, et al. The effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on kidney outcomes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020 Dec 2. doi: 10.1111/dom.14281. (Systematic review)
AIMS: To summarize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
METHODS: The Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for RCTs comparing DPP-4 inhibitors with a placebo, active comparator or standard care, with at least 500 person-years follow-up in patients with T2DM and with reporting of kidney outcomes. Treatment effects were summarized using random-effects meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Ten trials including 47 955 patients (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 71 mL/min/1.73m2 , mean follow-up 10 762 patient-years per trial) were eligible for inclusion. DPP-4 inhibitors were compared with placebo (five trials), active comparator (three trials), and standard care (two trials). Overall, treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors was associated with a greater decline in eGFR than treatment with the comparators (weighted mean difference -1.12 mL/min/1.73m2 , 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.61, -0.62; high-certainty evidence). There were no detectable effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on rates of doubling serum creatinine (risk ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% CI 0.90, 1.34; high-certainty evidence), end-stage kidney disease (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.77, 1.23; high-certainty evidence), death from kidney causes (RR 1.81, 95% CI 0.67, 4.93; low-certainty evidence), or all-cause mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95, 1.09; high-certainty evidence). DPP-4 inhibitors significantly reduced the risks of the surrogate kidney outcome of new albuminuria (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.8, 0.98; moderate-certainty evidence) and worsening albuminuria (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82, 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). There was no difference in the safety outcome of acute kidney injury (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.57, 1.87; high-certainty evidence).
CONCLUSIONS: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are associated with a greater decline in eGFR, despite reducing the development and progression of albuminuria, and have no clear effect on other key kidney outcomes.